Philippine Constitution (1973): Article XV

January 13, 2009

General Provisions

Section 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law.

Section 2. The interim Batasang Pambansa may by law adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, and a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Thereafter, the national name, anthem, and seal so adopted shall not be subject to change except by constitutional amendment.

Section 3. (1) This Constitution shall be officially promulgated in English and in Pilipino, and translated into each dialect spoken by over fifty thousand people, and into Spanish and Arabic. In case of conflict, the English text shall prevail.

(2) The Batasang Pambansa shall take steps towards the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.

(3) Until otherwise provided by law, English and Pilipino shall be the official languages.

Section 4. All public officers and employees and members of the armed forces shall take an oath to support and defend the Constitution.

Section 5. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional or double compensation unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept, without the consent of the Batasang Pambansa, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign state.

Section 6. No salary or any form of emolument of any public officer or employee, including constitutional officers, shall be exempt from payment of income tax.

SEC .7. (1) The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations wholly owned and managed by such citizens.

(2) The governing body of every entity engaged in commercial telecommunications shall in all cases be controlled by the citizens of the Philippines.

Section 8. (1) All educational institutions shall be under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by, the State. The State shall establish and maintain a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development.

(2) All institutions of higher learning shall enjoy academic freedom.

(3) The study of the Constitution shall be part of the curricula in all schools.

(4) All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency.

(5) The State shall maintain a system of free public, elementary education and, in areas where finances permit, establish and maintain a system of free public education at least up to the secondary level.

(6) The State shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth, and create and maintain scholarships for poor and deserving students.

(7) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious orders, mission boards, and charitable organizations, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines, or corporations or association sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens, and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrolment in any school. The provisions of this sub-section shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.

(8) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, and without cost to them and the Government, religion shall be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools as may be provided by law.

Section 9. (1) The State shall promote scientific research and invention. The advancement of science and technology shall have priority in the national development.

(2) Filipino culture shall be preserved and developed for national identity. Arts and letters shall be under the patronage of the State.

(3) The exclusive right to inventions, writings and artistic creations shall be secured to inventors authors, and artists for a limited period. Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided for specially gifted citizens.

Section 10. It shall be the responsibility of the State to achieve and maintain population levels most conducive to the national welfare.

Section 11. The State shall consider the customs traditions, beliefs, and interests of national cultural communities in the formulation and implementation of state policies.

Section 12. The State shall establish and maintain an integrated national police force whose organization, administration, and operation shall be provided by law.

Section 13. (1) The armed forces of the Philippines shall include a citizen army composed of all able-bodied citizens of the Philippines who shall undergo military training as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State.

(2) The citizen army shall have a corps of trained officers and men in active duty status as may be necessary to train, service, and keep it in reasonable preparedness at all times.

Section 14. The Batasang Pambansa shall establish a central monetary authority which shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervisory authority over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory authority as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions. Until the Batasang Pambansa shall otherwise provide, the Central Bank of the Philippines, operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority.

Section 15. The separation of church and state shall be inviolable.

Section 16. The State may not be sued without its consent.

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